HOT DRY SUMMER & COLD DRY WINTER
VERY LITTLE RAINFALL, HUMIDITY & VEGETATION COVER
HIGH TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT
DESERT AREAS, INCLUDING WIND & DUST
- Houses must remain cool in the extremely hot summers and warm in cold winters
- Shade and insulate the house against the heat of the day and flush out any stored heat during the cooler nights.
- Capture and store solar energy in a solid material such as a concrete floor or brick walls (thermal mass).
- This stored energy can be radiated from thermal mass into living areas of the house during the night
- The roof and walls are insulated with reflective foil & bulk insulation, to reflect heat and retain warmth or coolness.
- Windows are placed to take advantage of any cooling breezes in summer
- Eastern and western walls are well shaded
- Use a more compact floor plan with less external wall area than in the tropics to minimise the length of eastern and western walls
- Have very small, well shaded windows on the eastern and western walls
- Maximise night time cooling with internal windows and high level windows or vents in the centre of the house to let out the hot air and draw in cooler air (it is important that windows or vents can be closed in winter and during dust storms)
- Use shaded courtyards or gardens areas, with ponds or water features, to cool the low level air that is drawn into the house
- Internal courtyards provides cross ventilation & natural cooling.
- Thermal insulation for walls, such as mud
- Concrete masonry units, a low maintenance high strength material, results in significantly higher room temperatures and hence uncomfortable habitation.
- Use of lightweight concrete of higher insulation value should be explored
- Roof is to be self-ventilating or cooling and to be constructed of materials that have a higher thermal value
- The courtyard house typology with surrounding rooms is the most basic response to the hot arid climatic regions.
- Enclose the outdoor space with often only the depth of one room
- The hotter the climate, the taller the proportions are for the courtyard
- Multi story courtyards with vegetation are not uncommon to increase shaded area
- Most openings are to the internal courtyard rather than exterior surface
- Introverted building design protects inhabitants from wind, sand, sun
- Windows must be small but provides no air movement & natural lighting., hence explore wind towers
- Use light colours for external and internal wall surfaces
- Use water (ponds) in internal courtyard for evaporation
- Mud or mud brick wall normally 400 – 800mm thick
- Mixtures often include earth, soil, dry vegetation, stone & aggregate.
- Different techniques of mud structure are used in different climatic conditions
- Wattle & Daub
- Rammed earth